Publications 2010 – Present
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  1. Jiyue Yang, Di Wu, Albert Lee, Seyed Armin Razavi, Puneet Gupta, Kang L. Wang, Sudhakar Pamarti. “A Calibration-Free In-Memory True Random Number Generator Using Voltage-Controlled MRAM”. Accepted by IEEE 51st European Solid-State Device Research Conference 2021.
  2. He, H., Tai, L., Wu, D., Wu, H., Razavi, A., Wong, K., Liu, Y. and Wang, K. L., “Enhancement of spin-to-charge conversion efficiency in topological insulators by interface engineering”. APL Materials 9 (7), 071104. (Jul 2, 2021)
  3. Shao, Q., Li, P., Liu, L., Yang, H., Fukami, S., Razavi, A.,Wu, H., Wang, K. L…. and Zhang, W., “Roadmap of spin-orbit torques”. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 57(7), 800439. (Jul 1, 2021)
  4. Liu, X., Wu, D., Liao, L., Chen, P., Zhang, Y., Xue, F., … Wang, K. L. and Kou, X.  “Temperature dependence of spin—orbit torque-driven magnetization switching in in situ grown Bi2Te3/MnTe heterostructures”. Applied Physics Letters, 118(11), 112406. (Mar 17, 2021)
  5. Lee, A., Dai, B., Wu, D., Wu, H., Schwartz, R. N. and Wang, K. L. “A thermodynamic core using voltage-controlled spin-orbit-torque magnetic tunnel junctions”. Nanotechnology. (Mar 3, 2021)
  6. Yang, Y. T., Hu, C., Zhang, P., Shakoorzadeh, N., Ni, N., Wang, K. L., and Iyer, S. S. “Nb-based superconducting silicon interconnect fabric for cryogenic electronics”.. Quantum Science and Technology, 6(2), 025014. (Feb 24, 2021)
  7. Cui, B., Yu, D., Shao, Z., Liu, Y., Wu, H., Nan, P., … Wang, K. L., Wang, W., Wu, K.,  Han, X., Zhang, G., Yang, H. and Yu, G.  “Néel‐Type Elliptical Skyrmions in a Laterally Asymmetric Magnetic Multilayer”. Advanced Materials, 33(12), 2006924. (Feb 18, 2021)
  8. Chang H, Wang, K. L. (2021). Unitary Neural Networks. Poster presented at: National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship Conference. Online.
  9. Chang H, Wang, K. L. (2021). (in press) “Deep Unitary Convolutional Neural Networks. 30th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks”. (Feb 23, 2021)
  10. Chang H, Wang K. L. (2021). A Method to Construct Unitary Weights for Convolutional Neural Networks. UCLA Invention Report Case No. 2021-219-1.
  11. Huang, H., Wu, H., Yu, T., Pan, Q., Dai, B., Razavi, A., … and Wang, K. L.  “Electrical and optical characterizations of spin-orbit torque”. Applied Physics Letters, 118(7), 072405. (Feb 16, 2021)
  12. Shuvaev, A., Pan, L., Zhang, P., Wang, K. L., and Pimenov, A. “Faraday Rotation Due to Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Cr-Doped (Bi, Sb) 2Te3”. Crystals, 11(2), 154. (Feb 3, 2021)




  1. Tsai, S. P., Yang, C. Y., Lee, C. J., Lu, L. S., Liang, H. L., Lin, J. X., … and Wang, K. L.  “Room‐Temperature Ferromagnetism of Single‐Layer MoS2 Induced by Antiferromagnetic Proximity of Yttrium Iron Garnet” . Advanced Quantum Technologies, 4(2), 2000104. (Dec 21, 2020)
  2. Li, S., Kang, W., Zhang, X., Nie, T., Zhou, Y., Wang, K. L., and Zhao, W.  “Magnetic skyrmions for unconventional computing”. Materials Horizons, 8(3), 854-868. (Dec 20, 2020)
  3. Wu, H., Nance, J., Razavi, S. A., Lujan, D., Dai, B., Liu, Y., … and Wang, K. L.  “Chiral Symmetry Breaking for Deterministic Switching of Perpendicular Magnetization by Spin–Orbit Torque”. Nano letters, 21(1), 515-521. (Dec 18, 2020)
  4. Peng, S., Zhu, D., Li, W., Wu, H., Grutter, A. J., Gilbert, D. A., … Wang, K. L. and Zhao, W.  “Exchange bias switching in an antiferromagnet/ferromagnet bilayer driven by spin–orbit torque”. Nature Electronics, 3(12), 757-764. (Nov 30, 2020)
  5. Xiong, D., Peng, S., Lu, J., Li, W., Wu, H., Li, Z., …Wang, K. L. and Zhao, W.  “Modulation of thermal stability and spin–orbit torque in IrMn/CoFeB/MgO structures through atom thick W insertion”. Applied Physics Letters, 117(21), 212401. (Nov 23, 2020)
  6. Razavi, A., Wu, H., Dai, B., He, H., Wu, D., Wong, K., Yu, G. and Wang, K. L., “Spin–orbit torques in structures with asymmetric dusting layers”. Applied Physics Letters, 117(18), 182403. (Nov 5, 2020)
  7. He, C., Razavi, A., Wei, J., Xu, H., Yu, G., Wong, K. L., Wu, H.,  Shen, S., Chen, Q., Zeng, Z., Wang, S., and Wang, K. L., “Interfacial spin transmission and spin–orbit torques in as-grown and annealed W/Co2FeAl/MgO multilayers”. Applied Physics Letters, 117(17), 172406. (Oct 30, 2020)
  8. Yang, C. Y., Pan, L., Grutter, A. J., Wang, H., Che, X., He, Q. L., Wu, Y.,  Gilbert, D. A.,  Shafer, P., Arenholz, E., Wu, H., Yin, G., Deng, P., Borchers, J. A., Ratcliff II, W. and Wang, K. L., “Termination switching of antiferromagnetic proximity effect in topological insulator”, Science Advances, 6(33), eaaz8463. (Aug 12, 2020)
  9. Wu, Y., Yin, G., Pan, L., Grutter, A. J., Pan, Q., Lee, A., Gilbert, D. A., Borchers, J. A., Ratcliff II, W., Li, A., Han, X.-D. and Wang, K. L., “Large exchange splitting in monolayer graphene magnetized by an antiferromagnet”, Nature Electronics, 2020. (Aug 10, 2020)
  10. Wu, Y., Zhang, S., Zhang, J., Wang, W., Zhu, Y. L., Hu, J., Yin, G., Wong, K., Fang, C., Wan, C., Han, X., Shao, Q., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, K., Zang, J., Mao, Z., Zhang, X. and Wang, K. L., “Néel-type skyrmion in WTe2/Fe3GeTe2 van der Waals heterostructure”, Nature Communications, 2020, 11, 3860. (Jul 31, 2020)
  11. Pan, L., Grutter, A., Zhang, P., Che, X., Nozaki, T., Stern, A., Street, M., Zhang, B., Casas, B., He, Q. L., Choi, E. S., Disseler, S. M., Gilbert, D. A., Yin, G., Shao, Q., Deng, P., Wu, Y., Liu, X., Kou, X., Masashi , S., Han, X., Binek, C., Chambers, S., Xia, J. and Wang, K. L., “Observation of Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect and Exchange Interaction in Topological Insulator/Antiferromagnet Heterostructure”, Advanced Materials, 2020: 2003380. (Jul 21, 2020)
  12. Wu, H., Groß, F., Dai, B., Lujan, D., Razavi, S. A., Zhang, P., Liu, Y., Sobotkiewich, K., Förster, J., Weigand, M., Schütz, G., Li, X., Gräfe, J. and Wang, K. L., “Ferrimagnetic Skyrmions in Topological Insulator/Ferrimagnet Heterostructures”, Advanced Materials, 2020: 2003380. (Jul 14, 2020)
  13. Bhattacharya, D., Razavi, S. A., Wu, H., Dai, B., Wang, K. L.,  and Atulasimha, J. , “Creation and annihilation of non-volatile fixed magnetic skyrmions using voltage control of magnetic anisotropy”, Nature Electronics. (Jun 29, 2020)
  14. Pan, L., Liu, X., He, Q. L., Stern, A., Yin, G., Che, X., Shao, Q., Zhang, P., Deng, P., Yang, C.-Y., Casas, B., Choi, E. S., Xia, J., Kou, X., and Wang, K. L., “Probing the low-temperature limit of the quantum anomalous Hall effect”, . Science Advances, 6(25), eaaz3595. (Jun 17, 2020)
  15. He, C., Razavi, S. A., Yu, G., Ma, X., Wu, H., Shao, Q., Wong, K. L., Shen, S., Zhao, Y., Pei, Y., Chen, Q., Li, X., Wang, S., and Wang, K. L., “Study of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, spin–orbit torque, and Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in the heavy metal/CoFeB bilayers with Ir22Mn78 insertion”, Applied Physics Letters, 116(24), 242407. (Jun 16, 2020)
  16. Ovchinnikov, I. V., Li, W., Sun, Y., Hudson, A. E., Meier, K., Schwartz, R. N. and Wang, K. L., “Criticality or Supersymmetry Breaking?”, Symmetry, 12(5), 805. (May 12, 2020)
  17. Wang, K. L., Wu, Y., Eckberg, C., Yin, G. and Pan, Q., “Topological quantum materials”, MRS Bulletin, 45(5), 373-379. (May 7, 2020)
  18. Tu, S., Ziman, T., Yu, G., Wan, C., Hu, J., Wu, H., … , Wang, K. L., Ansermet, J. -P., Maekawa, S. and Yu, H., “Record thermopower found in an IrMn-based spintronic stack”, Nature Communications, 11(1), 1-7. (Apr 24, 2020)
  19. Albagami, M., Alrasheed, A., Alharbi, M., Alhazmi, A., Wong, K., Qasem, H., Alodan, S., Alolaiyan, O., Wang, K. L. and Amer, M. R., “Anomalous Conductivity Switch Observed in Treated Hafnium Diselenide Transistors”, Advanced Electronic Materials, 6(5), 1901246. (Apr 08, 2020)
  20. Razavi, A., Wu, H., Shao, Q., Fang, C., Dai, B., Wong, K., Han, X., Yu, G. and Wang K. L. , “Deterministic Spin–Orbit Torque Switching by a Light-Metal Insertion”, Nano letters, 20(5),  3703-3709. (Mar 31, 2020)
  21. Lee, A., Jagannathan, R., Wu, D., and Wang, K. L. , “A 2-D Calibration Scheme for Resistive Nonvolatile Memories”, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, 28(6),  1371 – 1377. (Mar 11, 2020)
  22. Che, X., Pan, Q., Vareskic, B., Zou, J., Pan, L., Zhang, P., Yin, G., Wu, H., Shao, Q., Deng, P. and Wang, K. L. , “Strongly Surface State Carrier‐Dependent Spin–Orbit Torque in Magnetic Topological Insulators”, Advanced Materials, 32(16),  1907661. (Feb 28, 2020)
  23. Wang, Z., Wu, H., Burr, G.W., Hwang, C.S., Wang, K.L., Xia, Q. and Yang, J.J., “Resistive switching materials for information processing”, Nature Reviews Materials, 1-23. (Jan 13, 2020)




  1. Lee, A., Wu, D., and Wang, K. L.  “Torque Optimization for Voltage-Controlled Magnetic Tunnel Junctions as Memory and Stochastic Signal Generators”  IEEE Magnetics Letters10, 1-4. (Sep 30, 2019)
  2. Shen, J., Lyu, J., Gao, J.Z., Xie, Y.M., Chen, C.Z., Cho, C.W., Atanov, O., Chen, Z., Liu, K., Hu, Y.J. and Yip, K.Y., Goh, S.K., He Q., Pan, L., Wang, K.L., Law, K.T. and Lortz, R.,  “Spectroscopic fingerprint of chiral Majorana modes at the edge of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator/superconductor heterostructure”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1910967117. (Nov 21, 2019)
  3. Wu, H., Zhang, P., Deng, P., Lan, Q., Pan, Q., Razavi, S.A., Che, X., Huang, L., Dai, B., Wong, K., Han, X. and Wang, K.L.,  “Room-Temperature Spin-Orbit Torque from Topological Surface States”, Physical Review Letters, 123(20), p.207205. (Nov 15, 2019)
  4. Li, X., Sasaki, T., Grezes, C., Wu, D., Wong, K.L., Bi, C., Ong, P.V., Ebrahimi, F., Yu, G., Kioussis, N., Wang, W., Ohkubo, T., Amiri, P. and Wang, K.L.,  “Predictive Materials Design of Magnetic Random-Access Memory Based on Nanoscale Atomic Structure and Element Distribution”, Nano Letters, 19(12), pp.8621-8629. (Nov 07, 2019)
  5. Cui, B., Wu, H., Li, D., Razavi, S.A., Wu, D., Wong, K.L., Chang, M., Gao, M., Zuo, Y., Xi, L. and Wang, K.L.,  “Field-Free Spin–Orbit Torque Switching of Perpendicular Magnetization by the Rashba Interface”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces., 11(42), pp.39369-39375. (Oct 11, 2019)
  6. Lee, A.,  Wu, D., and Wang, K. L., “Torque Optimization for Voltage-Controlled Magnetic Tunnel Junctions as Memory and Stochastic Signal Generators”, IEEE Magnetics Letters 10, 1-4. (Sep 30, 2019)
  7. Tsai, S. H., Lei, S., Zhu, X., Tsai, S. P., Yin, G., Che, X., Deng, P., Ng, J., Zhang, X., Lin, W. -H., Jin, Z., Qasem, H., Zhou, Z., Vajtai, R., Yeh, N. -C., Ajayan, P., Xie, Y. -H. and Wang, K. L., “Interfacial States and Fano–Feshbach Resonance in Graphene–Silicon Vertical Junction”, Nano letters, 19(10), 6765-6771. (Sep 23, 2019)
  8. Cui, B., Wu, H., Chang, M., Yun, J., Zuo, Y., Gao, M., Wang, K. L. and Xi, L.,  “Investigating the influence of the depinning energy barrier on domain wall motion in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Cr/Ta multilayers”, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 493, 165676. (Aug 05, 2019)
  9. Wu, H., Xu, Y., Deng, P., Pan, Q., Razavi, S.A., Wong, K., Huang, L., Dai, B., Shao, Q., Yu, G. and Han, X.  “Spin‐Orbit Torque Switching of a Nearly Compensated Ferrimagnet by Topological Surface States”, Advanced Materials. (Jul 08, 2019)
  10. Shao, Q., Liu, Y., Yu, G., Kim, S.K., Che, X., Tang, C., He, Q.L., Tserkovnyak, Y., Shi, J. and Wang, K.L.  “Topological Hall effect at above room temperature in heterostructures composed of a magnetic insulator and a heavy metal”, Nature Electronics. (May 17, 2019)
  11. Wu, H., Razavi, S.A., Shao, Q., Li, X., Wong, K.L., Liu, Y., Yin, G. and Wang, K.L.  “Spin-orbit torque from a ferromagnetic metal”, Physical Review B. (May 06, 2019)
  12. Lee, A., & Wang, K. L.  “Full Memory Encryption with Magnetoelectric In-Memory Computing”. In 2019 International Symposium on VLSI Technology, Systems and Application (VLSI-TSA) (pp. 1-2). IEEE. (Apr 19, 2019)
  13. Cui, B., Yun, J., Yang, K., Wu, H., Zhu, Z., Zuo, Y., Yang, D., Gao, M., Zhang, Z., Xi, L. and Wang, K. L.  “Current induced magnetization switching in Pt/Co/Cr structures with enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and spin Hall effect”, Applied Physics Express. (Mar 19, 2019)
  14. Navabi, A., Liu, Y., Upadhyaya, P., Murata, K., Ebrahimi, F., Yu, G. et al.  “Control of Spin-Wave Damping in YIG Using Spin Currents from Topological Insulators”, Physical Review Applied. (Mar 19, 2019)
  15. Yin, Gen, Jie-Xiang Yu, Yizhou Liu, Roger K. Lake, Jiadong Zang, and Kang L. Wang. “Planar Hall effect in antiferromagnetic MnTe thin films”, Physical Review Letters. (Mar 14, 2019)
  16. Shao, Qiming, Alexander Grutter, Yawen Liu, Guoqiang Yu, Chao-Yao Yang, et al. “Exploring interfacial exchange coupling and sublattice effect in heavy metal/ferrimagnetic insulator heterostructures using Hall measurements, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and neutron reflectometry”, Physical Review B. (Mar 4, 2019)
  17. Liu, W., Xu, Y., He, L., van der Laan, G., Zhang, R. and Wang, K. L. (2019). “Experimental observation of dual magnetic states in topological insulators”. Science advances, 5(2), eaav2088. (Feb 8, 2019)
  18. Fan, Yabin, Qiming Shao, Lei Pan, Xiaoyu Che, Qing-Lin He, Gen Yin, Cheng Zheng et al. “Unidirectional Magneto-Resistance in Modulation-doped Magnetic Topological Insulators”, Nano letters. (Jan 28, 2019)




  1. Wang, Kang L., Hao Wu, Seyed Armin Razavi, and Qiming Shao., “Spintronic devices for low energy dissipation”, IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM). (December 1, 2018)
  2. Shao, Qiming, Hao Wu, Quanjun Pan, Peng Zhang, Lei Pan, Kin Wong, Xiaoyu Che, and Kang L. Wang., “Room Temperature Highly Efficient Topological Insulator/Mo/CoFeB Spin-Orbit Torque Memory with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy”, IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM). (December 1, 2018)
  3. He, Congli, Guoqiang Yu, Cecile Grezes, Jiafeng Feng, Zhen Zhao, Seyed Armin Razavi, Qiming Shao et al., “Spin-Torque Ferromagnetic Resonance in W/ Co−Fe−B/ W/ Co−Fe−B/ MgO Stacks”, Physical Review Applied. (Sep 28, 2018)
  4. Shao, Qiming, Chi Tang, Guoqiang Yu, Aryan Navabi, Hao Wu, Congli He, Junxue Li, et al., “Role of dimensional crossover on spin-orbit torque efficiency in magnetic insulator thin films”, Nature Communications. (Sep 6, 2018)
  5. He, Qing Lin, Gen Yin, Luyan Yu, Alexander J. Grutter, Lei Pan, Chui-Zhen Chen, Xiaoyu Che et al.“Topological Transitions Induced by Antiferromagnetism in a Thin-Film Topological Insulators”, Physical Review Letters. (Aug 29, 2018)
  6. Fox, Eli J., Ilan T. Rosen, Yanfei Yang, George R. Jones, Randolph E. Elmquist, Xufeng Kou, Lei Pan, Kang L. Wang, and D. Goldhaber-Gordon, “Part-per-million quantization and current-induced breakdown of the quantum anomalous Hall effect”, Physical Review B. (Aug 27, 2018)
  7. He, Qing Lin, Gen Yin, Alexander J. Grutter, Lei Pan, Xiaoyu Che, Guoqiang Yu, Dustin A. Gilbert et al., “Exchange-biasing topological charges by antiferromagnetism”, Nature Communications. (Jul 17, 2018)
  8. Che, Xiaoyu, Koichi Murata, Lei Pan, Qing Lin He, Guoqiang Yu, Qiming Shao, Gen Yin et al., “Proximity-Induced Magnetic Order in a Transferred Topological Insulator Thin Film on a Magnetic Insulator”, ACS nano. (May 7, 2018)
  9. Lee, H., Lee, A., Wang, S., Ebrahimi, F., Gupta, P., Amiri, P. K. and Wang, K. L., “Analysis and compact modeling of magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy”, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 54(4), 1-9. (Feb 21, 2018)
  10. Qu, D.X., Che, X., Kou, X., Pan, L., Crowhurst, J., Armstrong, M.R., Dubois, J., Wang, K.L. and Chapline, G.F., “Anomalous helicity-dependent photocurrent in the topological insulator (Bi 0.5 Sb 0.5) 2 Te 3 on a GaAs substrate”, Physical Review B, 97(4), p.045308. (January 24, 2018)
  11. Zhu, X., Lei, S., Tsai, S.H., Zhang, X., Liu, J., Yin, G., Tang, M., Torres Jr, C.M., Navabi, A., Jin, Z. and Tsai, S.P., “A Study of Vertical Transport through Graphene towards Control of Quantum Tunneling”, Nano letters, DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03221. (January 4, 2018)
  12. Wang K. L., Chang H. (Grant Date: 2018). Self-Organized Critical CMOS Circuits and Methods for Computation and Information Processing. United States Patent US10147045B2.




  1. Yu, G., Jenkins, A., Ma, X., Razavi, S.A., He, C., Yin, G., Shao, Q., He, Q.L., Wu, H., Li, W. and Jiang, W., “Room-temperature skyrmions in an antiferromagnet-based heterostructure”Nano letters(December 22, 2017)
  2. Rosen, I.T., Fox, E.J., Kou, X., Pan, L., Wang, K.L. and Goldhaber-Gordon, D., “Chiral transport along magnetic domain walls in the quantum anomalous Hall effect”npj Quantum Materials2(1), p.69. (December 1, 2017)
  3. Lee, A., Lee, H., Ebrahimi, F., Lam, B., Chen, W. H., Chang, M. F., … and Wang, K. L. (2017).“A dual-data line read scheme for high-speed low-energy resistive nonvolatile memories”IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems26(2), 272-279.  (Nov 14, 2017)
  4. Kou, X., Fan, Y., and Wang, K.L., Review of Quantum Hall Trio¸ Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids. (Online October 25, 2017)
  5. Ovchinnikov, I.V., and Wang, K.L., Stochastic Dynamics and Combinatorial Optimization, Modern Physics Letters B, 1750285/1-16. (October 20, 2017)
  6. He, Q.L., Pan, L., Stern, A.L., Burks, E.C., Che, X., Yin, G., Wang, J., Lian, B., Zhou, Q., Choi, E.S., Murata, K., Kou, X., Chen, Z., Nie, T., Shao, Q., Fan, Y., Zhang, S.-C., Liu, K., Xia, J., and Wang, K.L., Chiral Majorana Fermion Modes in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator-Superconductor Structure, Science, 357 (6348): 294-299. (July 21, 2017)
  7. Zou, W., Wang, W., Kou, X., Lang, M., Fan, Y., Choi, E.S., Fedorov, A.V., Wang, K., He, L., Xu, Y., and Wang, K.L., Observation of Quantum Hall Effect in an Ultra-Thin (Bi53Sb0.47)2Te3 Film”, Applied Physics Letters, 110 (21): 212401/1-4. (May 22, 2017)
  8. Almasi, H., Sun, C.L., Li, X., Newhouse-Illige, T., Bi, C., Price, K.C., Nahar, S., Grezes, C., Hu, Q., Khalili Amiri, P., Wang, K.L., Voyles, P.M., and Wang, W.G., Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junction with W Seed and Capping Layers, Journal of Applied Physics, 121 (15): 153902/1-6. (April 20, 2017)
  9. Peng, S., Wang, K., Wang, M., Cao, K., Zhao, X., Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Zhang Y., Zhou, Y., Wang, K.L., and Zhao, W., Interfacial Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in Sub-20 nm Tunnel Junctions for Large-Capacity Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Random-Access Memory, IEEE Magnetics Letters, 8: 3105805/1-5. (April 12, 2017)
  10. Navabi, A., Chen, C., Barra, A., Yazdani, M., Yu, G., Montazeri, M., Aldosary, M., Li, J., Wong, K., Hu, Q., Shi, J., Carman, G.P., Sepulveda, A.E., Khalili Amiri, P., and Wang, K.L., Efficient Excitation of High-Frequency Exchange-Dominated Spin Waves in Periodic Ferromagnetic Structures, Physical Review Applied, 7 (3): 034027/1-8. (March 28, 2017)
  11. Grezes, C., Lee, H., Lee, A., Wang, S., Ebrahimi, F., Li, X., Wong, K., Katine, J.A., Ocker, B., Langer, J., Gupta, P., Khalili Amiri, P., and Wang, K.L., Write Error Rate and Read Disturbance in Electric-Field-Controlled Magnetic Random-Access Memory, IEEE Magnetics Letters, 8: 3102705/1-5. (March 10, 2017)
  12. Lee, H., Lee, A., Wang, S., Ebrahimi, F., Gupta, P., Amiri, P. K. and Wang, K. L., A word line pulse circuit technique for reliable magnetoelectric random access memoryImproving the Performance of Solar Cells with Novel Buffer Structure by the Chemical Batch Deposition Technique, IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, 25(7), 2027-2034. (March 7, 2017)
  13. Ho, J.-S., Chang, S.-C., Ho, J.-J., Hsu, W.-T., Chiang, C.-C., Tsai, S.-Y., Wang, S.-S., Lin, C.-K., Chou, C.-C., Yeh, C.-H., and Wang, K.L., Improving the Performance of Solar Cells with Novel Buffer Structure by the Chemical Batch Deposition Technique, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 59: 29-34. (March 1, 2017)
  14. Razavi, S.A., Wu, D., Yu, G., Lau, Y.-C., Wong, K.L., Zhu, W., He, C., Zhang, Z., Coey, J.M.D., Stamenov, P., Khalili Amiri, P., and Wang, K.L., Joule Heating Effect on Field-Free Magnetization Switching by Spin-Orbit Torque in Exchange –Biased Systems, Physical Review Applied, 7: 024023/1-11. (February 23, 2017)
  15. Peng, S., Zhao, W., Qiao, J., Su, L., Zhou, J., Yang, H., Zhang, Q., Zhang, Y., Grezes, C., Khalili Amiri, P., and Wang, K.L., Giant Interfacial Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/capping Layer Structures, Applied Physics Letters, 110 (7): 072403/1-5. (February 14, 2017)
  16. Lee, H., Grezes, C., Lee, A., Ebrahimi, F., Khalili Amiri, P., and Wang, K.L., A Spintronic Voltage-Controlled Stochastic Oscillator for Event-Driven Random Sampling, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 38 (2): 281-284. (February 2017)
  17. Li, X., Fitzell, K. Wu, D., Karaba, C.T., Buditama, A., Yu, G., Wong, K.L., Altieri, N., Grezes, C., Kioussis, N., Tolbert, S., Zhang, Z., Chang, J.P., Khalili Amiri, P., and Wang, K.L., Enhancement of Voltage-Controlled Magnetic Anisortropy Through Precise Control of Mg Insertion Thickness at CoFeB|MgO Interface, Applied Physics Letters, 110 (5): 052401/1-5. (January 30, 2017)
  18. Mohanchandra, K.P., Prikhodko, S.V., Wang, K.L., and Carman, G.P.,Strain Induced Exchange-Spring Magnetic Behavior in Amorphous (TbDy)Fe2 Thin Films, Journal of Applied Physics, 121: 043911/1-5. (January 27, 2017)
  19. He, Q.L., Kou, X., Grutter, A.J., Yin, G., Pan, L., Che, X., Liu, Y., Nie, T., Zhang, B., Disseler, S.M., Kirby, B.J., Ratcliff II, W., Shao, Q., Murata, K., Zhu, X., Yu, G., Fan, Y., Montazeri, M., Han, X., Borchers, J.A., and Wang, K.L., Tailoring Exchange Couplings in Magnetic Topological-Insulator/Antiferromagnet Heterostructures, Nature Materials, 16 (1): 94-100. (January 2017)




  1. Kubota, Y., Murata, K., Miyawaki, J., Ozawa, K., Onbasli, M.C., Shirasawa,T., Feng, B., Yamamoto, S., Liu, R.-Y., Yamamoto, S., Mahatha, S.K., Sheverdyaeva, P., Moras, P., Ross, C.A., Suga, S., Harada, Y., Wang, K.L., and Matsuda, I., Interface Electronic Structure at the Topological Insulator-Ferrimagnetic Insulator Junction, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 29 (5): 055002/1-6. (December 2, 2016)
  2. Biswas, C., Ma, Z., Zhu, X., Kawaharamura, T., and Wang, K.L., Atmospheric Growth of Hybrid ZnO Thin Films for Inverted Polymer Solar Cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 157: 1048-1056. (December 2016)
  3. Wu, D., Yu, G., Chen, C.-T., Razavi, S.A., Shao, Q., Li, X., Zhao, B., Wong, K.L., He, C., Zhang, Z., Amiri, P.K., and Wang, K.L., Spin-Orbit Torques in Perpendicularly Magnetized Ir22Mn78/Co20Fe60B20/MgO Multilayer, Applied Physics Letters, 109: 222401/1-5. (November 28, 2016)
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  22. Gan, Z., Gu, M., Tang, J., Wang, C.-Y., He, Y., Wang, K.L., Wang, C., Smith, D.J., McCartney, M.R., Direct Mapping of Charge Distribution during Lithiation of Ge Nanowires Using Off-Axis Electron Holography, Nano Letters, 16 (6): 3748-3753. (May 18, 2016)
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  1. Peng, S., Wang, M., Yang, H., Zeng, L., Nan, J., Zhou, J., Zhang, Y., Halla, A., Chshiev, M., Wang, K.L., Zhang, Q., and Zhao, W., Origin of Interfacial Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/ Metallic Layer Structures, Scientific Reports, 5: 18173/1-6. (December 11, 2015)
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  20. Cherepov, S., Khalili Amiri, P., Alzate, J. G., Wong, K., Lewis, M., Upadhyaya, P., Nath, J., Bao, M., Bur, A., Wu, T., Carman, G. P., Khitun, A., and Wang, K. L., Electric-Field-Induced Spin Wave Generation Using Multiferroic Magnetoelectric Cells, Applied Physics Letters, 104 (8): 082403/1-5. (February 25, 2014)
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  1. Zhang, J.-M., Ming, W., Huang, Z., Liu, G.-B., Kou, X., Fan, Y., Wang, K.L., and Yao, Y., Stability, Electronics, and Magnetic Properties of the Magnetically Doped Topological Insulators Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, and Sb2Te3, Physical Review B, 88 (23): 235131: 1-9. (December 30, 2013)
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  3. Chu, C., Arafin, S., Nie, T., Yao, K., Kou, X., He, L., Wang, C.-Y., Chen, S.-Y., Chen, L.-J., Qasim, S.M., BenSaleh, M.S., and Wang, K.L., Nanoscale Growth of GaAs on Patterned Si (111) Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Crystal Growth and Design, 14 (2): 593-598. (December 16, 2013)
  4. He, L., Kou, X., Lang, M., Choi, E.S., Jiang, Y., Nie, T., Jiang, W., Fan, Y., Wang, Y., Xiu, F., and Wang, K.L., Evidence of the Two Surface States of (Bi53SB0.47)2Te3 Films Grown by Van der Waals Epitaxy, Scientific Reports, 3: 3406/1-6. (December 3, 2013)
  5. Fischer, I.A., Gebauer, J., Rolseth, E., Winkel, P., Chang, L.-T., Wang, K.L., Surges, C., and Schulze, J., Ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3C8 Contacts on Ge: Work Function and Specific Contact Resistivity, Semiconductor Science and Technology, 28 (12): 125002/1-5. (October 24, 2013)
  6. Li, X., Yang, G, Torres, C.M., Zheng, D., and Wang, K.L., A Class of Efficient Quantum Incrementer Gates for Quantum Circuit Synthesis, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 28 (01): 1350191/1-15. (October 17, 2013).
  7. Kou, X., Lang, M., Fan, Y., Jiang, Y., Nie, T., Zhang, J., Jiang, W., Wang, Y., Yao, Y., He, L., and Wang, K.L., Interplay between Different Magnetisms in Cr-Doped Topological Insulators, ACS Nano, 7 (10): 9205-9212. (September 26, 2013)
  8. Kou, X., He, L., Lang, M., Fan, Y., Wong, K., Jiang, Y., Nie, T., Jiang, W., Upadhyaya, P., Xing, Z., Wang, Y., Xiu, F., Schwartz, R.N., and Wang, K.L., Manipulating Surface–Related Ferromagnetism in Modulation-Doped Topological Insulators, Nano Letters, 13 (10): 4587-4593. (September 10, 2013)
  9. Tang, J., Wang, C.-Y., Chang, L.-T., Fan, Y., Nie, T., Chan, M., Jiang, W., Chen, Y.-T., Yang, H.-J., Tuan, H.-Y., Chen, L.-J., and Wang, K.L., Electrical Spin Injection and Detection in Mn5Ge3/Ge/Mn5Ge3 Nanowire Transistors, Nano Letters, 13 (9): 4036-4043. (August 12, 2013)
  10. Poljak, M., Suligoj, T., and Wang, K., Influence of Substrate Type and Quality on Carrier Mobility in Graphene Nanoribbons, Journal of Applied Physics, 114 (5): 053701/1-8. (August 1, 2013)
  11. Wang, K., Liu, Y., Wang, W., Meyer, N., Bao, L.H., He, L., Lang, M.R., Chen, Z.G., Che, X.Y., Post, K., Zou, J., Basov, D.N., Wang, K.L., and Xiu, F., High-Quality Bi2Te3 Thin Films Grown on Mica Substrates for Potential Optoelectronic Applications, Applied Physics Letters, 103 (3): 031605/1-4. (July 17, 2013)
  12. Jiang, Y., Wang, Y., Sagendorf, J., West, D., Kou, X., Wei, X., He, L., Wang, K.L., Zhang, S., and Zhang, Z., Direct Atom-by-Atom Chemical Identification of Nanostructures and Defects of Topological Insulators, Nano Letters, 13 (6): 2851-2856. (May 28, 2013)
  13. Zeng, C., Song, E.B., Wang, M., Lee, S., Torres, C.M.Jr., Tang, J., Weiller, B.H., and Wang, K.L., Vertical Graphene-Base Hot-Electron Transistor, Nano Letters, 13 (6): 2370-2375. (May 14, 2013)
  14. Dorrance, R., Alzate, J.G., Cherepov, S.S., Upadhyaya, P., Krivorotov, I.N., Katine, J.A., Langer, J., Wang, K.L., Khalili Amiri, P., and Markovic, D., Diode-MTJ Crossbar Memory Cell Using Voltage-Induced Unipolar Switching for High-Density MRAM, IEEE Electron Device Letters, 34 (6): 753-755. (May 3, 2013)
  15. Jiang, W., Upadhyaya, P., Fan, Y., Zhao, J., Wang, M., Chang, L.-T., Lang, M., Wong, K.L., Lewis, M., Lin, Y.-T., Tang, J., Cherepov, S., Zhou, X., Tserkovnyak, Y., Schwartz, R.N., and Wang, K.L., Direct Imaging of Thermally Driven Domain Wall Motion in Magnetic Insulators, Physical Review Letters, 110 (17): 177202/1-5. (April 22, 2013)
  16. Zeng, Z., Finocchio, G., Zhang, B., Khalili Amiri, P., Katine, J.A., Krivorotov, I.N., Huai, Y., Langer, J., Azzerboni, B., Wang, K.L., and Jiang, H., Ultralow-Current-Density and Bias-Field-Free Spin-Tranfer Nano-Oscillator, Scientific Reports, 3: 1426/1-5. (March 12, 2013)
  17. Lee, S., Lee, Y., Song, E.B., Wang, K.L., and Hiramoto, T., Gate-Tunable Selective Operation of Single Electron/Hole Transistor Modes in a Silicon Single Quantum Dot at Room Temperature, Applied Physics Letters, 102 (8): 083504/1-4. (February 25, 2013)
  18. He, L., Kou, X., and Wang, K.L., Review of 3D Topological Insulator Thin-Film Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Potential Applications, Physica Status Solidi, 7 (1-2): 50-63. (January 31, 2013)
  19. Wang, K.L., Alzate, J.G., Khalili Amiri, P., Low-Power Non-Volatile Spintronic Memory: STT-RAM and Beyond, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 46 (7): 074003/1-10. (January 31, 2013)
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  21. Xu, K., Zeng, C., Zhang, Q., Yan, R., Ye, P., Wang, K., Seabaugh, A.C., Xing, H.G., Suehle, J.S., Richter, C.A., Gundlach, D.J., and Nguyen, N.V., Direct Measurement of Dirac Point Energy at the Graphene/Oxide Interface, Nano Letters, 13 (1): 131-136. (January 9, 2013)
  22. Khalili Amiri, P., Upadhyaya, P., Alzate, J.G., and Wang, K.L., Electric-Field-Induced Thermally Assisted Switching of Monodomain Magnetic Bits, Journal of Applied Physics, 113 (1): 013912/1-5. (January 7, 2013)
  23. Balendhran, S., Deng, J., Ou, J.Z., Walia, S., Scott, J., Tang, J., Wang, K.L., Field, M.R., Russo, S., Zhuiykov, S., Strano, M.S., Medhekar, N., Sriram, S., Bhaskaran, M., and Kalantar-zadeh, K., Enhanced Charge Carrier Mobility in Two-Dimensional High Dielectric Molybdenum Oxide, Advanced Materials, 25 (1): 109-114. (January 4, 2013)
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  1. Birt, D.R., An, K., Tsoi, M., Tamaru, S., Ricketts, D., Wong, K.L., Amiri, P.K., Wang, K.L., and Li, X., Deviation from Exponential Decay for Spin Waves Excited with a Coplanar Waveguide Antenna, Applied Physics Letters, 101 (25): 252409/1-4. (December 20, 2012)
  2. Poljak, M., Song, E.B., Wang, M., Suligoj, T., and Wang, K.L., Influence of Edge Defects, Vacancies, and Potential Fluctuations on Transport Properties of Extremely Scaled Graphene Nanoribbons, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 59 (12): 3231-3238. (December 2012)
  3. Zhang, C.X., Zhang, E.X., Fleetwood, D.M., Alles, M.L., Schrimpf, R.D., Song, E.B., Kim, S.M., Galatsis, K., and Wang, K.L., Electrical Stress and Total Ionizing Dose Effects on Graphene-Based Non-Volatile Memory Devices, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 59 (6): 2974-2978. (December 2012)
  4. Lang, M., He, L., Kou, X., Upadhyaya, P., Fan, Y., Chu, H., Jiang, Y., Bardarson, J.H., Jiang, W., Choi, E.S., Wang, Y., Yeh, N.-C., Moore, J., and Wang, K.L., Competing Weak Localization and Weak Antilocalization in Ultrathin Topological Insulators, Nano Letters, 13 (1): 48-53. (November 30, 2012)
  5. Tang, J., Wang, C.-Y., Jiang, W., Chang, L.-T., Fan, Y., Chan, M., Wu, C., Hung, M.-H., Liu, P-H., Yang, H.-J., Tuan, H.-Y., Chen, L.-J., and Wang, K.L., Electrical Probing of Magnetic Phase Transition and Domain Wall Motion in Single-Crystalline Mn5Ge3 Nanowire, Nano Letters, 12 (12): 6372-6379. (November 20, 2012)
  6. Zhu, G., Wong, K.L., Zhao, J., Khalili-Amiri, P., Zhu, J., Krivorotov, I., and Wang, K.L., Quantitative Analysis of Electric Field Induced Change in Anisotropy Field in Co60Fe20B20/(011) xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-(1-x) PbTiO3(x~0.68) Heterostructures, Applied Physics Letters, 101 (20): 202404/1-5. (November 13, 2012)
  7. Huai, Y., Khalili-Amiri, P., and Wang, K.L., Guest Editorial – Recent Progress in Spintronic Devices, Spin, 2 (3): 1202001/1-3. (November 9, 2012)
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  9. Zhao, H., Zhang, Y., Amiri, P.K., Katine, J.A., Langer, J., Jiang, H., Krivorotov, I.N., Wang, K.L., and Wang, J.-P., Spin-Torque Driven Switching Probability Density Function Asymmetry, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 48 (11): 3818-3820. (November 2012)
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  12. Bao, L., He, L., Meyer, N., Kou, X., Zhang, P., Chen, Z., Fedorov, A.V., Zou, J., Riedemann, T.M., Lograsso, T.A., Wang, K.L., Tuttle, G., and Xiu, F., Weak Antilocalization and Quantum Oscillations of Surface States in Topological Insulator Bi2Se2Te, Scientific Reports, 2: 726/1-7. (October 11, 2012)
  13. Hoang, J., Schwartz, R.N., Wang, K.L., and Chang, J.P., The Effects of Energy Transfer on the Er354um Luminescence in Nanostructured Y2O3 Thin Films with Heterogeneously Distributed Yb3+ and Er3+ Codopants, Journal of Applied Physics, 112 (6): 063117/1-11. (September 27, 2012)
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  19. Kim, S.M., Song, E.B., Lee, S., Zhu, J., Seo, D.H., Mecklenburg, M., Seo, S., and Wang, K.L., Transparent and Flexible Graphene Charge –Trap Memory, ACS Nano, 6 (9): 7879-7884. (August 13, 2012)
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  22. Lee, S., In, J., Yoo, Y., Jo, Y., Park, Y., Kim, H.-J., Koo, H., Kim, J., Kim, B., and Wang, K.L., Single Crystalline β-Ag2Te Nanowire as a New Topological Insulator, Nano Letters, 12 (8): 4194-4199. (August 8, 2012)
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  24. Hoang, J., Schwartz, R.N., Wang, K.L., and Chang, J.P., Er3+ Interlayer Energy Migration as the Limiting Photoluminescence Quenching Factor in Nanostructured Er3+:Y2O3 Thin Films, Journal of Applied Physics, 112 (2): 023116/1-6. (July 15, 2012)
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  30. Hoffman, S., Tserkovnyak, Y., Khalili Amiri, P., and Wang, K.L., Magnetic Bit Stability: Competition Between Domain-Wall and Monodomain Switching, Applied Physics Letters, 100 (21): 212406/1-4. (May 25, 2012)
  31. Zhao, H., Amiri, P.K., Zhang, Y., Lyle, A., Katine, J.A., Langer, J., Jiang, H., Wang, K.L., Krivorotov, I.N., and Wang, J.P., Spin-Transfer Torque Switching Above Ambient Temperature, IEEE Magnetics Letters, 3: 3000304. (May 24, 2012)
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  1. Wang, Y., Liao, Z., Xu, H., Xiu, F., Kou, X., Wang, Y., Wang, K.L., Drennan, J., and Zou, J., Structural evolution of GeMn/Ge superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy under different growth conditions, Nanoscale Research Letters, 6: 624. (December 12, 2011)
  2. Tsai, C-I., Wang, C-Y., Tang, J., Hung, M-H., Wang, K.L., and Chen, L-J., Electrical Properties and Magnetic Response of Cobalt Germanosilicide Nanowires, ACS Nano, 5 (12): 9552-9558. (November 8, 2011)
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